NO3-/NH4+ ratio in plants of bell pepper with early blunting (NO3-/NH4+ ratio in bell pepper)

O. González-Chávez1; R. Bugarín-Montoya1**; G. Alejo-Santiago2; C. R. Juárez-Rosete2

1. Inter-institutional Master in Protected Agriculture, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Mexico, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Mexico , 2. Professor-Researcher, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Mexico, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Mexico

Correspondence: **. Corresponding Author: Bugarín Montoya Ruben, Inter-institutional Master in Protected Agriculture, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo S/N, Col. Centro, C.P. 63000 Tepic, Nayarit. México. Phone: +52 (311)126 6275 E-mail: E-mail: .


Abstract:

In the bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production systems, the nutrient solution and the conduction system are primordial to the success of the crop. The objective of the present study, was to evaluate the effect of different NO 3-/NH4+ ratios in the nutrient solution on the growth and fruit yield of two bell pepper varieties, Avante y Tribeka, managed with a system of early blunting of the growth apex above the fourth bifurcation. The experiment was developed under greenhouse conditions and in an open circuit hydroponic system, in containers with a volume of 10 L of substrate of red basaltic volcanic stone. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized, with a 4x2 factorial arrangement with five repetitions. The different NO3-/NH4+ proportions supplied in the nutrient solution with the same osmotic potential of -0.037 kPa, promoted a differential response in most of the evaluated variables related to fruit yield and accumulated total dry biomass. The best response in the studied variables was obtained with the addition of 10% of NH4+ which is equivalent to 0.75 meq L-1 in the ratio of cations. However, the concentration of ammonium in the nutrient solution had an interactive effect with the pepper varieties Avante and Tribeka in the quantified variables.

Received: 2018 August 9; Accepted: 2019 March 27

revbio. 2020 Mar 20; 6: e548
doi: 10.15741/revbio.06.e548

Keywords: Key words: Bell Pepper, nitrate/ammonium, early blunting.

Introduction

Pepper is one of the main horticultural crops produced worldwide in open field and greenhouse production. Mexico is the main supplier of this product to the markets of the United States and Canada (Díaz et al., 2013). The states with the highest production are Sinaloa, Sonora and Guanajuato, with a contribution of 152.4, 2.1 and 1.6 thousand tons, respectively, and an approximate value of 3,600 million pesos (SIAP, 2016). In Mexico there are different pepper conduction systems. Most of the greenhouses use the Dutch type or pruning in “V”, which consists in guiding the plant to two stems by pruning one of the branches in each bifurcation, during 10 months approximately. The system is delicate in its management and the cost of production per kilogram is high (Sánchez et al., 2017). An alternative system of lower cost is the early pruning, which allows to stop the growth of the plants by eliminating the growth apices, once the first three or four bifurcations have been formed. By means of this procedure, the cultivation cycle is shortened to four or five months after the transplant and results in the establishment of at least two to three cultivation cycles per year. The yield per plant with this system is usually smaller, but it is compensated per surface unit, given that the population density is higher compared to what is used commercially (Ortíz et al., 2009). At experimental level, the pruning above the third and fourth bifurcation has been used in pepper crops, demonstrating that they can potentially achieve an annual productivity equal to or greater than European pruning systems, but with simpler technologies and lower production costs (Cruz et al., 2009). Another important factor in the production of pepper in soilless crop production is the composition and concentration of ions in the nutrient solution. In particular, the nitrogen nutrition and the ionic form of NO3- and NH4+ in a proper ratio, can increase the growth and yield of crops compared with either of the two forms of nitrogen separately (Sheng-Xiu et al., 2013). The beneficial effect of the proportion NO3-/NH4+ varies between species, as well as the degree of development of the crops, environmental conditions, total concentration of nitrogen and total ionic concentration of the nutrient solution (Chang et al., 2010; Tucuch-Haas et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2017). An inadequate supply of the NO3-/NH4+ ratio may be harmful to the crop due to the effects of toxicity and alterations in metabolism that may occur by high concentrations of nitrogen (Sheng-Xiu et al., 2013). The correct ammoniacal nutrition can become an effective tool to improve the nitrogen absorption in plants, starting from the fact that the assimilation of nitrogen by the absorption of the ammoniacal form is faster (Bonete & Martínez, 2009) and with a lower energetic cost for the plants (Degiovanni et al., 2010). In tomato, Dong et al. (2004) reported that a 25/75 ratio of NH4+ and NO3- increased the fresh and dry fruit weight. On their part, Claussen (2002) and Xu et al. (2001) reported that in hydroponic greenhouse pepper and tomato crops, maximum growth and yield was obtained when the NH4+ concentration did not exceed 30 %. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different NO3-/NH4+ ratios in the nutrient solution, in the accumulated total dry biomass and yield of Bell pepper fruit with management of early pruning, in an open-circuit hydroponic system.

Material and Methods

The study was carried out in a modified tunnel-type greenhouse without climatic control and with passive zenith and lateral ventilation, located in the Academic Unit of Agriculture, at 21° 25’ North latitude and 104° 53’ West longitude in Xalisco, state of Nayarit, during the period from August 2017 to January 2018. Two varieties of blocky bell pepper, Avante and Tribeka with ripe red fruits were used, which have high resistance to the Tobacco mosaic virus and intermediate resistance to the Tomato spotted wilt virus and Pepper sadness. The sowing was carried out in polystyrene trays of 200 cavities, placing one seed per cavity; peat (Sunshine®) fine mixture number 3 was used as substrate. Once the seeds germinated, the irrigations and fertilization were carried out when the first true leaves emerged, applying the universal Steiner solution at 25 %. At 45 days after sowing, when the plants had formed two to three true leaves, the transplant was performed in black polyethylene bags of 10 liters capacity, with red basaltic volcanic rock as a substrate with a particle size of 6 mm to fine. The plantation framework consisted of paired lines with a distance of 1.20 m between corridors, 0.60 m between lines and 0.50 m between plants.

The chemical composition, pH and electrical conductivity of the irrigation water used in the experiment is detailed in Table 1; it has a sodium adsorption ratio of 0.86, residual sodium carbonate -0.35 and according to the Riverside Standards it is classified as C1S1, good quality water. The Steiner’s universal nutrient solution (Steiner, 1961) was used modifying the total nitrogen concentration of 12 to 15 meq·L-1 from its original formulation and the total ionic concentration was reduced to an osmotic potential (Ψo) of -0.037 ± -0.0025 kPa. The percentage proportions of NO3-/NH4+ used were 100/0, 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30, which corresponds to a NH4+ concentration of 0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25 meq L-1 respectively, in the cation ratio. Table 2 shows the chemical composition of anions and cations of the nutrient solutions mentioned.

Table 1.

Chemical composition, pH and electrical conductivity of water used in the experiment for the preparation of nutrient solutions


HCO3- NO3- H2PO4- SO42- K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ NH4+ Na+ C.E.& pH
---------------------------------------------------------meq.L-1------------------------------------------------------- dS·m-1
0.80 0.41 0 0 0.15 0.73 0.42 0 0.65 0.2 7.1
&.

TFN1C.E. Electrical conductivity


Table 2.

Chemical composition of the nutrient solutions used in the experiment


NO3-/NH4+ NO3- H2PO4- SO42- K+ Ca2+ Mg2+ NH4+ Ψo&
(%) ----------------------------------------meq.L-1---------------------------------------- kPa
1 (100/0) 7.09 0.31 2.18 3.35 3.77 1.58 0.00 -0.0376
2 (90/10) 6.34 0.41 2.84 3.08 3.43 1.43 0.75 -0.0373
3 (80/20) 5.59 0.50 3.50 2.81 3.10 1.28 1.50 -0.0371
4 (70/30) 4.84 0.59 4.15 2.56 2.75 1.13 2.25 -0.0370
&.

TFN2 Ψo: Osmotic potential in kPa


For the preparation of the nutrient solutions (Table 2) in the different treatments, the concentrations of anions and cations present in the irrigation water were considered (Table 1). Fertigation grade commercial fertilizers were used as a source of nutrients: calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate heptahydrate, magnesium sulfate, ammonium sulfate and monopotassium phosphate. As a micronutrient source, Ultrasol micromix® was used. The adjustment of the pH to 6.0 ± 0.1 of the nutritive solutions was made with sulfuric acid. The management of irrigation with nutrient solution or only acidulated water with a pH of 6.0 was carried out by means of a drip irrigation system, placing two emitters of 2 liters per hour in each container, operated with the use of a digital timer SKU model 458148 of 125 V-60Hz. A percentage of total drainage was maintained from 10 to 15% in the vegetative stage and 20 % in the flowering-fruiting stage, to achieve a drainage electrical conductivity of 1.0 to 1.3 dS m-1 throughout the crop cycle. Irrigations with nutrient solution were daily at 8:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m., with a volume that ranged from 250 to 500 ml according to the development of the crop, as well as a daily total of 12 micro irrigations, with acidulated water and a volume of 50 to 100 ml per event with a frequency of one hour.

The factors under study were four NO3-/NH4+ relations and two blocky bell pepper varieties: Avante and Tribeka. In this way, eight treatments were established in a completely randomized experimental design, with a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with five repetitions. The experimental unit consisted of a plant placed in a container of 10 L capacity with a substrate. The different nutrient solutions were supplied from the first day of the transplant. The plants were cultivated with the growth of all their stems until the fourth bifurcation and the three leaves above it, the removal of the growth apices or pruning was done. The tutoring was carried out with raffia cords held on wire fastened in the structure of the greenhouse at a height of 3.2 m. The variables evaluated were Average fruit weight (AFW, g•fruit-1), Number of fruits harvested per plant (NFP, Number of fruits•plant-1), Fruit production per plant (RP, kg•plant-1), Fruit yield per m2 (RM2, kg•m-2), Number of fruits per m2 (NFM2) and Accumulated total dry biomass (TDB, g·plant-1). For the quantification of the total dry biomass, the samples of root, leaf, stem and fruit were dried in an oven with forced air circulation at 70°C until reaching constant weight. For the case of fruit, the dry weight of all the fruits obtained per plant, estimated from fresh weight, was added. The estimators were obtained by linear regressions between dry weight and fresh fruit weight, with five repetitions. The fresh or dry weight was determined using a digital scale. The data obtained from the response variables considered in the experimental treatments were subjected to an analysis of variance and Tukey’s means test (p≤0.05) with the statistical program SAS®.

Results and Discussion

The analysis of variance showed significant differences for the variety factor in all the variables, except for fruit yield per m2 (FYM2). The NO3-/NH4+ ratio factor and variety interaction with the NO3-/NH4+ ratio had significant differences in all the response variables, with the exception of accumulated total dry biomass (Table 3).

Table 3.

Analysis of variance for dry biomass accumulated, fruit yield and its components per plant and area unit, studied in two varieties of bell pepper with different NO3-/NH4+ ratios and early blunting.


Probability > F
Variable C.V.& Variety NO3-/NH4+ ratio Variety* NO3-/NH4+ Ratio
Average fruit weight 12.16 0.0001* 0.0046* 0.0030*
Number of fruits per plant 18.02 0.0001* 0.0001* 0.0022*
Number of fruits per m2 10.00 0.0001* 0.0004* 0.0304*
Fruit production per plant 16.67 0.0277* 0.0001* 0.0022*
Fruit yield per m2 8.54 0.0593 0.0071* 0.0358*
Accumulated total dry biomass 8.05 0.029* 0.0001* 0.3759
&.

TFN3C.V . Coefficient of variation. * Differences significatives P ≤ 0.05.


Average fruit weight, number of fruits harvested per plant and number of fruits per m2

The average weight of fruit, number of fruits harvested per plant and per surface area (m2), was significantly affected by the effect of the NO3-/NH4+ ratio in nutrient solutions (SN). The fruit weight increased up to 17 % with the NO3-/NH4+ ratios of 80/20 and 70/30 in the Avante variety compared to the SN without NH4+. In the Tribeka variety the fruit weight increased up to 14% with the NO3-/NH4+ ratio of 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30, also in comparison with the SN without NH4+. Regarding the number of fruits in Avante, a 28 % decrease occurred when using nutrient solutions with NO3-/NH4+ ratio of 80/20 and 70/30, while in Tribeka the number of fruits decreased when 30 % of NH4+ was included, lower proportions of NH4+ did not affect the number of fruits in this variety. In the variable number of fruits per m2 in Avante, the number of fruits was reduced with the use of SN with a NO3-/NH4+ ratio of 80/20 and in Tribeka the effect of decrease in the number of fruits per m2 was observed in the SN including 30 % NH4+ (Table 4).

Table 4.

Effect of the NO3- / NH4+ ratio on production variables of two varieties of bell pepper with blunt over the fourth bifurcation, in hydroponics and greenhouse.


NO3-/NH4+
Ratio %
Variety Average fruit
weight (g fruit-1)
Number of fruits
per plant
Number of fruits
per m2
(100/0) Avante 144.35 b& 10.12 a 39.8 ab
(90/10) Avante 140.31 b 10.75 a 41.8 a
(80/20) Avante 165.10 a 8.37 b 33.4 b
(70/30) Avante 158.54 ab 9.18 ab 36.4 ab
(100/0) Tribeka 170.50 b 8.31 a 33.00 a
(90/10) Tribeka 195.77 a 7.93 a 31.60 ab
(80/20) Tribeka 186.57 ab 7.81 a 30.80 ab
(70/30) Tribeka 182.00 ab 5.81 b 25.00 b
MSD§ 22.271 1.6786 6.9664
&.

TFN4Values with equal letters in each column are not statistically different to variety (Tukey, ≤0.05). §DMS: minimum significative difference.


In bell pepper, the average weight of fruit is an important characteristic for the market, and was increased with the inclusion of ammonium in the SN in both varieties; however, by supplying ammonium to the SN, the number of fruits per plant and the number of fruits per m2 decreased significantly. In the case of Avante when the proportion of NH4+ reached 20 % in the SN, the number of fruits decreased significantly, while Tribeka showed higher tolerance to the inclusion of NH4+, since the effect of diminishing the number of fruits occurred when the proportion of NH4+ was 30 %. The above confirms that reported by other authors regarding the difference between varieties of the same species with respect to the affinity for the absorption of nitrogen in a nitric or ammoniacal form (Chen et al., 2013). In the present study, it was observed that Tribeka is a variety whose inclusion of 10 % of ammonium of the total nitrogen in the SN favors the gain in average fruit weight without affecting the number of fruits it produces.

Fruit production, yield and biomass production

The supply of ammonium in the SN affected the fruit production per plant only in the case of the Tribeka variety, in which there was a reduction of 30 % when the highest proportion of ammonium was included in the SN, which ascended to 30 % of total nitrogen. In the case of Avante, the inclusion of up to 30 % of ammonium did not affect fruit production. Total accumulated dry biomass production was reduced only in the Tribeka variety when SN with 30 % ammonium was used (Table 5).

Table 5.

Effect of the NO3- / NH4+ ratio on yield variables of two varieties of bell pepper with blunting at the fourth bifurcation.


NO3-/NH4+
Ratio %
Variety Fruit production
per plant (kg plant-1)
Fruit yield
(kg·m-2)
TDB§
(g·plant-1)
100/0 Avante 1.43 a& 5.75 a 174.714 a
90/10 Avante 1.48 a 5.83 a 175.908 a
80/20 Avante 1.35 a 5.41 ab 161.347 ab
70/30 Avante 1.40 a 5.66 a 153.708 ab
100/0 Tribeka 1.39 a 5.57 a 157.444 ab
90/10 Tribeka 1.48 a 5.92 a 176.292 a
80/20 Tribeka 1.39 a 5.41 ab 156.449 ab
70/30 Tribeka 1.04 b 4.58 b 138.004 b
MSD ф 0.2501 0.9652 26.684
&.

TFN5Values with equal letters in each column are not statistically different to variety (Tukey, ≤0.05). фDMS minimum significative difference.


Reséndiz-Melgar et al. (2010) reported variations in accumulated dry biomass between 118 and 202 g in pepper plants under an early blunting system; the results of the present study fall within this range. The decrease of production of dry biomass in the case of the Tribeka variety when using the SN with a NO3-/NH4+ ratio of 70/30, indicated that the NH4+ when reaching this percentage begins to cause phytotoxic effects, which could affect the physiological processes responsible for the accumulation of dry matter, as reported by Esteban et al. (2016). Tucuch-Haas et al. (2012) reported that with a NO3-/NH4+ 70/30 ratio, the production per plant in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) was significantly lower, which coincides with the results of this study for the Tribeka variety. However, the results obtained in the present research, contrast with that reported by Sandoval-Villa et al., (2001), where the concentration of NH4+ in the SN did not affect the production of fruits in tomato by providing different NO3-/NH4+ ratios.

Effect of the NO3-/NH4+ ratio and varieties

The average weight of fruit increased 10 % with the inclusion of 10 to 30 % of NH4+ in the SN of the total nitrogen supplied, in comparison to the supply with only NO3-; however, the addition of NH4+ led to a decrease in the number of fruits when 10 % was added in the NO3-/NH4+ ratio, and the number of fruits was reduced by 16 %. Fruit production per plant also decreased by 18 % when the ammonium proportion was 30 %. The response in the number of fruits per m2 had a similar tendency to what was obtained in the variable number of fruits per plant, because both variables have high correlation. Regarding varieties, Avante outperformed Tribeka in the number of fruits per plant, number of fruits per m2 and fruit production per plant, but not in average fruit weight (Table 6).

Table 6.

Effect of the NO3-/NH4+ ratio on yield variables for Avante and Tribeka varieties of bell peppers, handled with blunting at the fourth bifurcation.


NO3-/NH4+
Ratio %
Average fruit weight
(g fruit-1)
Number of fruits
per plant
Number of fruits
per m2
Fruit production per plant
(kg plant-1)
100/0 157.43 b& 9.21 a 36.40 a 1.41 a
90/10 168.04 ab 9.34 a 36.70 a 1.48 a
80/20 175.84 a 8.09 b 32.10 b 1.37 ab
70/30 170.27 ab 7.50 b 30.70 b 1.22 b
MSD§ 13.299 1.002 4.120 0.149
Variety
Avante 152.08 b 9.60 a 37.85 a 1.42 a
Tribeka 183.71 a 7.46 b 30.10 b 1.32 b
MSD§ 7.146 0.538 2.190 0.080
&.

TFN6Values with equal letters in each column are not statistically different to variety (Tukey, ≤0.05). фDMS minimum significative difference.


The use of SN with only NO3- as a nitrogen source, affected the average fruit weight and the highest values were obtained with the addition of 20 % NH4+ in the SN, but this proportion of NH4+ significantly reduces the number of fruits; however, the above can be compensated with the improvement in product quality by having greater weight. These results contrast with that reported by Parra et al. (2012) in tomato cultivation cv. IB-9, where the number of fruits per plant was not affected by the different NO3-/ NH4+: urea ratios and the potassium concentration in the SN. Monge-Pérez et al. (2016) and Borošić et al. (2012) reported that the average weight of pepper fruit varies between 98 and 289 g; the results obtained for this variable are within this range. The effects that the NO3-/ NH4+ ratios caused in the variable number of fruits, differ with that reported by Antúnez-Ocampo et al. (2014) in cape gooseberry plants, where different NO3-/NH4+ ratios did not promote a significant difference in the number of fruits. This is attributed to the ability of each species or variety to tolerate different concentrations of ammonium in the SN.

The differences obtained between the pepper varieties Avante and Tribeka confirm that the optimum proportion of NO3-/NH4 + varies between cultivars of the same species (Chen et al., 2013). Bar-Tal et al. (2001a) state that concentrations higher than 1 mmol·L-1 of NH4+ in the SN decrease the production of fruit in pepper, as observed in the decrease in Tribeka from the NO3-/NH4+ ratio of 70/30.

The different NO3-/NH4+ ratios also affected fruit production per plant, fruit yield per m2 and production of accumulated dry biomass per plant. The highest fruit production per plant was reached in the following NO3-/NH4+ ratios 100/0, 90/10 and 80/20. With the inclusion of 30 % of NH4+, fruit production, fruit yield per m2 and production of accumulated total dry biomass were reduced. In the case of varieties, Avante had in general a greater capacity for fruit production and therefore a greater production of accumulated dry biomass (Table 7).

Table 7.

Effect of the NO3-/NH4+ ratio on yield variables for bell pepper varieties Avante and Tribeka, managed with blunting at the fourth bifurcation.


NO3-/NH4+ ratio % Fruit production
per plant (kg plant-1)
Fruit yield
(kg·m-2)
Total accumulated
dry biomass
(g plant-1)
100/0 1.41 a& 5.66 a 166.07 ab
90/10 1.48 a 5.87 a 176.10 a
80/20 1.37 ab 5.40 ab 158.89 bc
70/30 1.22 b 5.11 b 145.85 c
MSD 0.149 0.570 15.782
Variety
Avante 1.42 a 5.66 a 166.42 a
Tribeka 1.32 b 5.37 a 157.04 b
MSD§ 0.080 0.303 8.389
&.

TFN7Values with equal letters in each column are not statistically different to variety (Tukey, ≤0.05). фDMS minimum significative difference.


It should be noted that the highest yields per m2 were obtained with the incorporation of 10 % NH4+ with 5.87 kg of fruit per m2. These yields are greater than that reported by Cruz et al. (2009) in a similar crop cycle. This is because the coexistence of NO3- and NH4+ in the SN favors a greater absorption of N compared to the separate supply of NO3- or NH4+ (Sheng-Xiu et al., 2013).

Similar results were obtained in California Wonder cv. pepper, where increasing the NH4+ in the SN decreased the dry weight of the plant and fruit (Marti & Mills, 1991). In contrast, Sandoval-Villa et al. (2001) found no significant differences in fresh and dry weight in tomato crops when providing different NO3-/NH4+ ratios. The presence of both forms of nitrogen in the SN increases the total dry biomass in comparison with those plants treated only with NO3- (González et al., 2009); however, higher or exclusive NH4+ supplies may decrease it (Wang et al., 2009), as observed in the decrease with the addition of 30 % NH4+ in the SN. The greenhouse technology used in the present study was of low classification according to Mazuela et al. (2010) and García et al. (2011); however, the potential yield is similar to that obtained in annual cycles with more expensive greenhouses that contain higher technology (Bar-Tal et al., 2001b, Zuñiga-Estrada et al., 2004, Monge-Pérez et al., 2016). Another advantage of this short-cycle production system is that it ensures fruit production, even with plants with a virile disease or present pest (Sánchez et al., 2017). In addition, production cycles can be programmed on dates on which the weather and the market are more favorable and thus increase profitability.

Conclusions

The different NO3-/NH4+ proportions supplied in the nutrient solution with the same osmotic potential of -0.037 kPa promoted a differential response in most of the evaluated variables related to fruit yield and total accumulated dry biomass in bell pepper with early blunting at the height of the fourth bifurcation of the stem. The best response in the studied variables was obtained with the addition of 10 % of NH4+ that equals 0.75 meq L-1 in the ratio of cations. In the same way, the concentration of ammonium in the nutrient solution had an interactive effect with the pepper varieties Avante and Tribeka in the quantified variables.


1.

fn1Cite this paper: Sáenz-Reyes, J. T., Castillo-Quiroz, D., CastilloReyes, F., Muñoz-Flores, H. J., Avila-Flores D. Y. (2019). Determination of the plant quality in cortadillo (Nolina cespitifera Trel.) Under chemical and biological fertilization in nursery. Revista BioCiencias 6, e547. Doi: https://doi.org/10.15741/revbio.06.e547

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Revista Bio Ciencias, Año 12, vol. 8,  Enero 2021. Sistema de Publicación Continua editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”,  Col. Centro,  C.P.: 63000, Tepic, Nayarit, México. Teléfono: (01) 311 211 8800, ext. 8922. E-mail: revistabiociencias@gmail.com, revistabiociencias@yahoo.com.mx, http://revistabiociencias.uan.mx. Editor responsable: Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. No. de Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo 04-2010-101509412600-203, ISSN 2007-3380, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. Secretaria de Investigación y Posgrado, edificio Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigación Científica (CEMIC) 03 de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. La opinión expresada en los artículos firmados es responsabilidad del autor. Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de los contenidos e imágenes, siempre y cuando se cite la fuente y no sea con fines de lucro.

Licencia Creative Commons
Revista Bio Ciencias por Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit se encuentra bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional

Fecha de última actualización 03 de Noviembre de 2021

 

licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional