Biomass and macronutrient dynamics in mother and daughter corms in gladiolus (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort)

L. Gómez-Pérez1; L. A. Valdez-Aguilar1*; A. Benavides-Mendoza1; A. Juárez-Maldonado2

1. Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Horticultura, México., Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Horticultura, Mexico , 2. Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Botánica, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, México. C. P. 25315., Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Botánica,

<city>Saltillo</city>
<state>Coahuila</state>
, Mexico

Correspondence: *Corresponding Author: Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Horticultura, Calzada Antonio Narro 1923, Buenavista, Saltillo, Coahuila, México. C. P. 25315. Phone: +52(844) 442 8790. E-mail: E-mail: .


Abstract:

The production of gladiolus cut flowers of good quality largely relies on corm reserves and size; however, little attention has been paid to the understanding of the nutrient requirements for optimum quality of such organs. In the present study, it was evaluated the dynamics of biomass and the content of macronutrients in the mother and daughter corms as affected by the initial size of the mother corm. The biomass of the mother corm decreased after the transplant whereas, after flower harvest, that of the daughter corm increased. The content of N, K, Mg and S had a similar tendency as that of biomass, however, once the daughter corm appeared there was an increase in the content of these elements. A portion of P, Ca, Mg and S present in the mother corm was remobilized towards the daughter corm, nonetheless, in order to meet its demands, the daughter corm has to be supplemented through fertilization with 63.6, 52.9, y 38.0 kg ha-1 N, 9.2, 8.4 y 5.8 kg ha-1 P and 11.2, 11.3, and 7.7 kg ha-1 K for daughter corms developed from mother corms of 3.8 g (3.5 cm diameter), 2.5 g (3.0 cm diameter) and 1.8 g (2.5 cm diameter), respectively. Calcium has to be supplemented at 2.9 - 5.0 kg ha-1, whereas Mg and S at 0.9 and 1.6 kg ha-1, respectively.

revbio. 2018 ; 5(1)
doi: 10.15741/revbio.05.2018.07

Keywords: Keywords: Endangered, herpetofauna, translocations, tortoises, Mexico.

Introduction

The ornamental geophytes, also named ornamental bulbous, have an important contribution on ornamental industry, seeing that they are used for the production of cut flowers, plants in flowerpot, as well as gardening (Benschop et al., 2010). This group of plants present a large morphologic diversity, development and growth habits, and in physiological response to environmental factors (De Hertogh and Le Nard, 1993). The bulbous species are found in more than 800 botanic genus, which are characterized for presenting sprouts of renovation in an underground organ for the storage of water, reserves, hormones, and nutrients (Hartman et al., 2011; Kamentesky and Okubo, 2013); some examples of these underground organs are: the rhizome, tubers, and bulbs (Kamenetsky and Okubo, 2013).

The gladiolus (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) belongs to the iridaceae family and is native to Africa and Asia. It is one of the most important bulbous plants, since it is ranked in fifth place in the international flower trade and it has a big economic impact as a cut flower (Ahmed et al., 2002). The gladiolus is widely cultivated in Mexico in opened-field conditions, because approximately 80 % of all cut flowers that are produced in Mexico correspond to this species (Ramos-Garcia et al., 2009).

The gladiolus is a summer bulb and requires a cold-heat-cold sequence in order to complete its cycle, from ending of dormancy, vegetative growth, blooming, senescence, and the formation of a new dormant corm (De Hertogh, 1996). The corm originally planted, known as ‘mother corm’ provides reserves for the initial development of the plant, and dies once the reserves are depleted. Nonetheless, prior blooming, a new corm is formed above the mother corm, known as ‘daughter corm,’ in addition to numerous little corms known as ‘little corms.’ The daughter corm has to be harvested and receive a treatment to eliminate dormancy, to be in conditions to produce another plant with flowers in the next season.

The size of the mother corm or daughter corm has a remarkable impact on the quality of the plant that is developed because, the bigger it is, the greater the reserves, water and nutrients are. In spite of the importance that ornamental bulbous have on the floriculture market; now days, little data exists about nutrition programs of the daughter corms for these crops.

Mineral nutrients are essential for the growth and development of plants. They contribute to the regulation of processes that influence on yield and play an important role in the blooming, pollination, and tuber initiation, as reported in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), an edible geophyte, as well as the control of processes of storage in the organs of demand (Engels, et al., 2012). Engelbrecht et al., (2008) pointed out that the nutrimental status exhibited by the bulbous plants at the beginning the new growth cycle, influences growth and blooming of plants. The nutrients have to be available and in sufficient quantity, as well as being in a balanced proportion according to the requirements of the plants (Wang et al., 2015).

The purpose of this study consisted on determining the effect that mother corm size has on the dynamics of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S during gladiolus cultivation, as well as the extraction of these nutrients by the daughter corm. This information would be useful to determine a program of fertilization to be applied during the development of daughter corm, in order to obtain propagules with greater nutrimental reserves, which will favor the growth and quality of the plants grown from such corms, in the next growing season.

Materials and Methods

The study was performed in a greenhouse at Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The average maximum and minimum temperature during the experiment was 37 °C and 15 °C, respectively. The average maximum and minimum relative humidity was 91 % and 44 %, respectively, while the photosynthetically active radiation was 466 µmol m-2 s-1.

The transplant of the corms was on April 28th, 2015; mother non dormant corms of three sizes were planted: 3.8, 2.5 and 1.8 g, which had an equatorial diameter of 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5 cm, respectively. The corms were placed in polyethylene bags of 10 L that contained a mixture of sphagnum peat and perlite (70 %:30 % v/v). Four corms were planted in each container down to a depth of 7 cm, totally covered by the substrate. The plants grown from the mother corms were irrigated with a solution containing Steiner’s formulation (Steiner, 1984) with a pH adjusted to 6.3 and an electrical conductivity of 2.5 dS m-1. The irrigation were provided when a tensiometer inserted in the substrate indicated a tension of 10 cb (Irrometer MLT Model), adding enough water to allow for a leaching fraction of 25 to 30 %. The nutrient solution was prepared using calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and magnesium sulfate as sources. Once the plants from each of the three mother corm sizes developed, 11 destructive samples were conducted at 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 80, 92, 104, and 116 days after the transplant; each sample consisted of 4 replications and each one of 4 plants. After harvesting the floral stem, 80 after the transplant, the growth of daughter corms was allowed during 36 days.

Upon removing the mother corms, as well as the daughter corms, these were washed using distilled water to eliminate the substrate residues and the equatorial diameter was measured using a digital vernier (Lyman, 7832218 model). Next, they were placed in paper bags and were introduced in a drying oven at 70 °C (±2.0) for 72 hours (Novatech, HS45-AIA model), after which biomass was recorded using an analytic scale (A&D GF-200 model). The dry material was ground in a Thomas-Wiley mill (model 4, Arthur H. Thomas Company, Philadelphia P.A., U.S.A.).

A mineral analysis of the concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S was conducted in the ground corms. The concentration of N was determined through semi-micro Kjeldhal (Fawcett, 1954), while as the concentration of P, K, Ca, Mg, and S was analyzed using a spectrometer of plasma emission coupled inductively (ICP-AES 725 Series Agilent; Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia) in samples digested in a mixture of H2SO4 and HClO4 plus H2O2 (Soltanpur et al.,1996); in the case of S, the digesting was performed in a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4. The calculations of the content of nutrients were done considering the accumulated biomass in the corms and the concentration of nutrients in them. The nutrimental content of the daughter corms was used, from which the mother corms’s contribution was subtracted, to calculate the demand of fertilizers for a surface of an hectare, considering a population density of 250 thousand plants.

In each one of the 11 samplings, the data from the 4 samples was averaged out and the standard error of the mean as measurement of variability was estimated, and plotted using Sigma Plot v. 12.5 (Systat Software, San Jose, California, USA).

Results and Discussion

Biomass and diameter of corms

After the transplant, the mother corms, went trough a loss of biomass, which happened mainly between the 15 and 25 days (Figure 1). At the time of the flower harvest (80 days after the transplant), the mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g had already decreased their original biomass by 40, 48, and 25 % respectively. The tendencies observed on the current study indicate that, as the aerial part of the gladiolus grow sustained by the reserves from the mother corm, it is disintegrated because its reserves are translocated towards the organs of demand (Ingels, 2010).


[Figure ID: f1] Figure 1.

Evolution of the mother corm and daughter corms’ biomass in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears developed from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


The size and biomass of the mother corm are factors that reflect the availability of reserves in this organ, however, the reserves were not completely depleted during the growth of the plant, because after the flower harvest, another decrease was detected, which was of, in relation to the original biomass, 61, 60, and 66 % respectively, 116 days after the transplant (Figure 1). This second biomass decrease was due to the growth of the daughter corm, which starts to grow using the remaining reserves from the mother corm, since the gladiolus plants gradually enter senescence (Hartman et al., 2011). Ninety two days after the transplant, the daughter corms biomass went on growing until reaching similar levels to the ones of the mother corm at the beginning of the study (Figure 1).

Gladiolus growers carry out the harvest of the floral allowing three leaves to remain attached to the mother corm; these leaves continue producing photoassimilates, a part of which will be stored in the daughter corm until completing the senescence of the shoot (Hartman et al., 2011). The accumulation of reserves produced by the remaining leaves, as well as the translocation of reserves from the mother corm, allow for the daughter corms to have a much greater biomass than the daughter corms at transplant time. This was observed in the present study, because the average weight of the daughter corms at the time of harvest was of 10.2, 9.0, and 6.3 g, when the mother corms they grew from had an average of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 1). After a treatment to break dormancy, the daughter corms can be used for plantation of the next growing season (Larson , 1992).

Similarly, the daughter corms resulted with a larger diameter in comparison to the diameter of the mother corm when it was transplanted (Figure 2); the mother corms of 3.5 cm resulted in the daughter corms of 5.1 cm, while the ones of 3.0 and 2.5 cm resulted in daughter corms of 4.7 ad 4.2 cm, respectively. The increase in biomass and diameter of daughter corms, in relation to the mother corm, has a significant effect on weight and diameter of the daughter corms from the gladiolus cv. White Friendship, because mother corms of 0.5 - 1.0, 1.0 - 1.5, and 1.5 - 2.0 cm of diameter resulted in daughter corms of 2.49, 2.74, and 3.18 cm and 8.02, 8.21, and 9.62 g, respectively (Noor-UI-Ain et al., 2013).


[Figure ID: f2] Figure 2.

Diameter of the daughter corm in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error in the mean (n=4).


Nutrimental dynamics

The size of the daughter corm is a factor that has to be considered by flower growers, because it is an indicator of reserves of carbohydrates, nutrients and water content, which determines its capacity to produce floral stems (De Hertogh and Le Nard, 1993) as well as their growth and quality (Noor-Un-Nisa et al., 2016). However, it is also important to pay attention to the nutritional content of the daughter corms, because these nutriments constitute the reserves for initial growth of the plants the next growing season.

In the present study, at the time of the transplant, the content of N was 84.1, 65.5. and 46.2 mg by corm of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 3); however, at blooming time, the content of N in mother corm decreased by 34, 47, and 6 % respectively. After the harvest of flowers, the content of N decreased even more, reaching losing levels of 64, 63, and 68 % in the 3 sizes of corms, 116 days after the transplant (Figure 3). After the harvest of the floral stems, as mentioned before, begins the formation of the daughter corm, which also started to accumulate N; when the daughter corms were harvested, they had already accumulated a total of 283.8, 224.6, and 178.1 mg of N when they were grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 3).


[Figure ID: f3] Figure 3.

Dynamics of nitrogen in mother corm and daughter corm in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


Regarding P, during the growing season, periods of decrease and recovery of this nutrient in the mother corm were observed (Figure 4).The P provided by the mother corm was of 6.2, 4.0, and 3.5 mg by corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively, nevertheless, at the time of flower harvest, the mother corms showed an accumulation of P, since, in relation to the original content, P increased by 57, 63, and 99 %, respectively (Figure 4). However, during the growth of the daughter corm, the content of P in the mother corm decreased by 67, 62, and an 80 % in corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively, in relation to P found at flower harvest (80 days after transplant) (Figure 4). This decrease was associated to the formation of the daughter corms, since they accumulated 44.0, 38.0, 28.8 mg of P when grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 4).


[Figure ID: f4] Figure 4.

Dynamics of phosphorus in mother corm and daughter corms in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandifloras Hort.) cv Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


At the beginning of the study, K content in the mother corm was of 15.2, 9.4, and 6.1 mg by corm of 3.8, 25, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 5). However, at the time of harvesting of the floral stem, the content of K in the mother corm decreased by 46, 47, and 27 % respectively. A decrease even more pronounced was observed during the growth of the daughter corm, because, in relation to the initial content, the K in the mother corm decreased 82, 75, and an 80 %, respectively (Figure 5). During the growth of the daughter corm, it accumulated K since at the time of harvest, their content was 50.8, 48.5, and 34.0 mg by corm when they grew from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 5).


[Figure ID: f5] Figure 5.

Dynamics of potassium in mother corm and daughter corm in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


Similar to the P, during growing season, periods of decrease and recovery were observed in the content of Ca in the mother corm (Figure 6). At transplant time, the content of Ca in the mother corm was 17.3, 11.8, and 7.6 mg by corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively. Considering the initial content of the mother corm, once the floral stems were harvested, a high accumulation of Ca was observed, even surpassing that of the initial content by 39, 12, and 46 % respectively (Figure 6). During the growth of the daughter corm, the content of Ca in the mother corm decreased to levels similar to the ones at transplant time (Figure 6). At the time of harvesting the daughter corms, 28.3, 22.8, and 16.0 mg of Ca were accumulated when grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 6).


[Figure ID: f6] Figure 6.

Dynamics of calcium in the mother corm and daughter corms in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


In lilium, it has been demonstrated that the supply of Ca for the leaves of the lower and mid part of the plant depend, despite that this element does not translocate by phloem (Hawkesford et al., 2012), on the translocation of Ca from the mother bulb (Chang and Miller, 2003), while the leaves at the top of the plant depend on the Ca absorbed by roots (Chang and Miller, 2003). The tendencies observed in the current study show that the content of Ca in the mother corm of gladiolus did not decrease markedly during the first 45 to 65 days after the transplant, which suggests that, in this species the first leaves in growing should have been supplied by the Ca absorbed by the roots, implying that this nutrient did not move from the mother corm towards the growing leaves. Another possible explanation could be that Ca was indeed translocated from the mother corm towards the first growing leaves, but it is recovered immediately in the mother corm by the absorption of Ca by the roots. However, the reduction in the content of Ca in the mother corm observed, at the beginning of the daughter corm growth suggests that there is a removal of the nutrient, so that in gladiolus there is also a translocation of Ca from the mother corm, probably through the xylem, as it is the case of the ilium bulbs (Chang and Miller, 2003).

Initial content of Mg in the mother corms was of 2.9, 1.6, and 1.2 mg by corm of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 7). At the time of harvesting the floral stems, no variation in the content in this nutrient was detected, however, after the harvest, the mother corms lost a 57, 48, and 49 % of Mg, in relation to the initial content (Figure 7). When they were harvested, the daughter corms accumulated 8.1, 6.8, and 4.7 mg of Mg, when grown from plants that grew from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 7).


[Figure ID: f7] Figure 7.

Dynamics of magnesium in the mother corm and daughter corms in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiforus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


The content of S in the mother corms at transplant time was of 2.4, 1.6, and 1.2 mg by corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively (Figure 8). After the harvest of the floral stem, the daughter corms started to accumulate S, up to 8.1, 6.8, and 4.7 mg per corm, when grown by plants that grew from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g, respectively. At 116 days after the transplant, the mother corm lost 48, 48, and 52 % of the S that they contained at the beginning of the study.


[Figure ID: f8] Figure 8.

Dynamics of sulfur in the mother corm and daughter corm in gladiolus plants (Gladiolus x grandiflorus Hort.) cv. Peter Pears grown from mother corms of 3.8, 2.5, and 1.8 g. The bars indicate the standard error of the mean (n=4).


In general, the content of macronutrients decreased in the mother corm during growing season (Figures 3 - 8), as these nutrients, as well as the biomass (Figure 1), were translocated towards the shoot during the initial stages of the plant’s growth, and later on to the formation of new corms. Similar results were reported by Ortega-Blu et al., (2006) in lilium since at transplant time, N, P and K are accumulated in the bulb, but when the shoot starts to grow, the nutrients are translocated towards it. Similarly, it has been reported that N, P, and K have an effect on the weight of tulip (Tulipa gesnariana L.) bulbs, obtaining higher yield and quality of bulbs (Khan et al., 2006).

In the current study, the daughter corms grown from the mother corms of 3.8 g showed a greater nutrient extraction while as in the corms of 2.5 g and 1.8 g the extraction was lower (Figures 3 - 8). The aforementioned is in agreement with the strategy of the ornamental geophytes, which consists in accumulating nutrients, carbohydrates and water in the underground storage organs, which allows them to survive in their natural habitat under stressful conditions, as they use the reserves for the development of sprouts and flowers (Miller, 1992).

During this study, the content of nutrients in the mother corm showed periods of loss and recovery, however, at the time of the harvest of the floral stem, and beginning of formation of the daughter corm, a slight increase of 6.4 and 9.2 mg was recorded in the content of N in the mother corms of 1.8 and 3.8 g, respectively (Figure 3). The increase was much more noticeable in the case of P (Figure 4), K (Figure 5), Ca (Figure 6), Mg (Figure 7) and S (Figure 8) in corms of 2.5 and 1.8 g. The increase in nutrient content may be associated with the shoot ceasing its growth as its flowers are ready for harvest, so that there is no need for traslocation of the uptaken nutrients, remaining stored in the mother corm.

Fertilization program for daughter corms

In order to obtain daughter corms with nutrient reserves, some flower growers make a last fertilizer application after finishing the harvest of flowers. However, this application is based on empiric knowledge that has not been validated by pertinent studies. Basing on the studies obtained in the current study, the adequate supply of nutrients for the formation of daughter corms that has to be applied after the harvest of flowers is the following (considering a density of 250 thousand plants ha-1 and not adjusted by nutrient use efficiency:

  1. For daughter corms grown from mother corms of 3.8 g: 63.6 kg ha-1 N, 9.2 kg ha-1 P, 11.2 kg ha-1 K, 4.4 kg ha-1 Ca, 1.6 kg ha-1 Mg, and 1.6 kg ha-1 S.
  2. For daughter corms grown from mother corms of 2.5 g: 52.9 kg ha-1 N, 8.4 kg ha-1 P, 11.3 kg ha-1 K, 5.0 kg ha-1 Ca, 1.5 kg ha-1 Mg and 1.5 kg ha-1 S.
  3. For daughter corms grown from mother corms of 1.8 g: 38 kg ha-1 N, 5.8 kg ha-1 P, 7.7 kg ha-1 K, 2.9 kg ha-1 Ca, 0.9 kg ha-1 Mg and 0.9 kg ha-1 S.

This information indicates that the N is the most demanded nutrient for the growth of the daughter corms, followed by P and K. Calcium, Mg and S were demanded in lowers quantities. It has been reported that independent applications of N, P2O5 and K2O equal to 46, 16, and 42 kg ha-1 of N, P and K, respectively, result in a significant increase in weight and diameter of the daughter corms in gladiolus cv. Essential, planted at an approximate density of 133 thousand plants ha-1; however, when two or three nutrients were applied, the result was less satisfactory in these parameters (Bashir et al., 2016). The difference among these results, with the ones obtained in the current study, can be due to the planting density used, as well as the size of the mother corm. The influence of N, P, and K in the size and weight of the daughter corms of gladiolus, has also been demonstrated by Verma et al., (2014), and Khan and Ahmad (2004), while Vazquez et al. (2015) and Gangwar et al., (2014) demonstrated it in amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum) and tuberose (Poliantes tuberosa L.), respectively.

Conclusion

The biomass of the mother corm affected growth, development, and accumulation of nutrients of the daughter corm. The daughter corm is supplied by the mother corm, mainly P, Ca, Mg, and S, and by nutrients ubtaken by the roots. According to our data, a fertilization program to fed the daughter corms has to include higher doses for those grown from larger corms. The mother corm is also a source of reserves for the daughter corm when it is still growing. Nitrogen is the most demanded nutrient by the daughter corms, followed by P and K.


1.

fn1Cite this paper/Como citar este artículo: Gómez-Pérez, L., Valdez-Aguilar, L. A., Benavides-Mendoza, A., Júarez-Maldonado, A. (2018). Biomass and macronutrient dynamics in mother and daughter corms in gladiolus (Gladiolus x Grandiflorus Hort). Revista Bio Ciencias 5(2018), 16 pages, Article ID: 05.2018.07. http://revistabiociencias.uan.mx/index.php/BIOCIENCIAS/article/view/323/pdf

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Revista Bio Ciencias, Año 12, vol. 8,  Enero 2021. Sistema de Publicación Continua editada por la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”,  Col. Centro,  C.P.: 63000, Tepic, Nayarit, México. Teléfono: (01) 311 211 8800, ext. 8922. E-mail: revistabiociencias@gmail.com, revistabiociencias@yahoo.com.mx, http://revistabiociencias.uan.mx. Editor responsable: Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. No. de Reserva de derechos al uso exclusivo 04-2010-101509412600-203, ISSN 2007-3380, ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor. Responsable de la última actualización de este número Dr. Manuel Iván Girón Pérez. Secretaria de Investigación y Posgrado, edificio Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigación Científica (CEMIC) 03 de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. La opinión expresada en los artículos firmados es responsabilidad del autor. Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de los contenidos e imágenes, siempre y cuando se cite la fuente y no sea con fines de lucro.

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